So far in 2011, we have seen a record number of tornadoes, unprecedented flooding, rampant earthquakes, disturbing volcanic eruptions and a tsunami in Japan that none of us will ever forget. So why are there so many natural disasters in 2011? Our top scientists seem to be at a complete loss to explain what is happening. It just seems like there is one disaster or emergency after another. Many Americans are getting "disaster fatigue" as the requests to donate money to various relief efforts never seem to end. There has never been a time in recent history when we have seen so many natural disasters compressed into such a short period of time. So exactly what is going on here? Is something causing all of this or is this all one big coincidence?
Well, there is one thing that we can rule out and that is the theory of man-made global warming.
The truth is that the climate has always changed and it will always be changing. But it is not because of anything man is doing. The following are just a few key points to remember as to why the theory of man-made global warming is completely and totally wrong....
*Ice core records have shown that global temperatures rise before levels of carbon dioxide go up. When temperatures rise, it causes a "life bloom" and this causes levels of carbon dioxide to increase.
*Levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere were far greater in the distant past than they are today. In fact, the truth is that our atmosphere actually does not have nearly enough carbon dioxide.
*During periods when advocates of the theory of man-made global warming claimed that the earth was heating up due to human activity, all of the planets in the solar system were actually heating up. The ice caps on other planets were not melting because of carbon dioxide levels on earth. Rather, all of the planets in the solar system were experiencing higher temperature levels because of the giant ball of fire called the sun that they are moving around.
*A growing body of scientific research shows that changes in the energy output of the sun account for most of the recent heating and cooling that we have experienced.
*Carbon dioxide is one of the basic building blocks of life on planet earth. If there was no carbon dioxide we would all die.
*If we reduce levels of carbon dioxide it will make it harder for crops to grow and could set off a global famine.
*An increasing number of scientists are acknowledging that carbon dioxide has nothing to do with global warming.
*Over 95% of all carbon dioxide emissions would still occur even if humans were not present on Earth.
Yes, the climate is changing. It has always changed and it will always be changing.
But carbon dioxide emissions are not doing the changing.
So now that we have cleared that up, let us get back to all of the crazy natural disasters that we have seen so far in 2011.
Right now, a major tornado outbreak is almost a nightly occurrence in the United States. In April, there were approximately 600 tornadoes across the country. That is the most tornadoes that have ever been recorded in a single month inside the United States. Usually, we only have about 1,200 tornadoes for the entire year.
The massive tornado outbreak in the southeast U.S. at the end of April is being called the worst natural disaster since Hurricane Katrina. One F5 tornado that ripped through the Tuscaloosa, Alabama area was reportedly a mile wide and scientists are estimating that it had winds that exceeded 260 miles an hour. Tuscaloosa looks like a war zone right now.
The tornado that ripped through Joplin, Missouri recently is being called the deadliest single tornado in more than 60 years. It ripped a path of destruction more than a mile wide and more than 6 miles long directly through the city. One British newspaper has some amazing before and after pictures of Joplin that you can view right here.
But it is not just tornadoes that are increasing in frequency and power. Major earthquakes are happening more regularly all over the globe, and the earthquake that struck off the coast of Japan in March was one of the largest ever recorded. That earthquake spawned the worst tsunami that any of us have ever seen.
Unfortunately, that tsunami also absolutely devastated the nuclear power complex at Fukushima. TEPCO is finally admitting that there were at least partial meltdowns at three of the nuclear reactors at Fukushima. It has been more than 2 months since the disaster and TEPCO still does not have the situation under control. Highly radioactive material continues to be pumped into the environment at a frightening pace. Many believe that all of this radiation will ultimately render much of northern Japan uninhabitable.
Greenpeace recently conducted some tests for radiation on samples of seaweed, fish, and shellfish off the coast of Japan, and what they found is extremely disturbing.... The results of the details analysis are back – and we can say that the situation in the ocean along the Fukushima coast is worse than we originally thought.
The new data shows that some seaweed contamination levels are not only 50 times higher than safety limits – far higher than our initial measurements showed – but also that the contamination is spreading over a wide area, and accumulating in sea life, rather than simply dispersing like the Japanese authorities originally claimed would happen. The news just keeps getting worse and worse.
Now, on top of everything else, the path of Super Typhoon Songda (with sustained winds of 160 mph and gusts up to 195 mph) could take it directly over the Fukushima complex.
Needless to say, that could potentially be a nightmare.
Sadly, more catastrophic seismic events may be on the way. As I have written about previously, there is a growing body of evidence that the "Ring of Fire" is waking up....
*In February, a large earthquake absolutely devastated Christchurch, New Zealand.
*Two massive volcanoes in the Kamchatka region of Russia erupted at almost the exact same moment when the massive magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck Japan back in March.
*One of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia, Mount Karangetang, erupted just a couple of hours after the earthquake hit Japan in March.
*The Fuego volcano in Guatemala absolutely exploded back in late February.
*800 meter high ash plumes rose from the Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala near the end of February.
*A number of other volcanoes along the Ring of Fire have been erupting recently.
*Although not on the Ring of Fire, Hawaii's Kilauea volcano is also in the Pacific Ocean and it has also been extremely active lately. It shot lava 65 feet into the air a couple months ago.
*2011 is just continuing a trend of increased activity along the Ring of Fire that began last year. It turns out that 2010 was a banner year for volcanic eruptions around the Ring of Fire.
*The west coast of the United States is also along the Ring of Fire. Last year, over 2000 earthquakes struck southern California in just one week.
*A magnitude 8.8 earthquake rattled central Chile in February 2010 and produced a tsunami that killed 524 people. The earthquake in Chile was so powerful that it actually knocked the earth off of its axis and shortened the length of the day.
We have also seen extreme heat and cold in many areas of the world over the past 12 months. Last winter was called "the coldest winter in 1000 years" in some parts of Europe.
Last summer, the hottest summer ever recorded destroyed crops and caused wildfires all over Russia.
Over the past year we have also seen unprecedented flooding in Australia, China and Pakistan. Some of the flooding has been so dramatic that is has been hard to believe that it is actually real.
In the United States, we just experienced one of the worst Mississippi River floods ever. It is being called a flood that only happens "once every hundred years".
John Michael Riley, an agricultural economist at Mississippi State University, is estimating that the damage to farms alone is going to be somewhere in the neighborhood of 2 billion dollars.
In Iceland, a massive eruption of the Grimsvotn volcano a few days ago sent a plume of white ash 18,000 feet into the air. Volcanoes all over Iceland (and all over the world) have been erupting with increasing frequency lately and nobody seems to know why this is happening.
Something really unusual is going on. All of these natural disasters should not be happening at the same time.
The following video has some really great footage of many of the natural disasters that we have seen over the past 12 months..
Sadly, all of these natural disasters are coming at a time when the world economy is coming apart at the seams. The truth is that almost all of the economic news is really bad right now.
The Greek debt crisis continues to get worse, the Japanese economy has plunged into a recession, the United States has never recovered from the last economic crisis and the price of food and gasoline are skyrocketing.
If natural disasters keep happening at the same pace for the rest of 2011, it may be enough to push the struggling global economy over the edge.
The world has become an extremely unstable place, and nobody is really sure what is going to happen next. In times like these, it is imperative that you make certain that you and your family are prepared.
So what do you think about all of this? Do you think that you know why there are so many natural disasters in 2011 so far? http://endoftheamericandream.com/archives/why-are-there-so-many-natural-disasters-in-2011
CHRONOLOGY OF WEATHER MODIFICATION IN USA SPRING 2011 / DESTRUCTION OF THE BIBLE BELT
April 14 - Hail, winds pound Kansas; Deadly tornadoes in Oklahoma, Arkansas April 15 - Intense thunderstorms rush through Central Arkansas, Tornado Count in Arkansas Rises to Nine April 16 - Tornadoes kill several people in Carolinas April 17 - Ferocious storms devastate South / Tornadoes, floods leave several dead in Virginia April 18 - Storms wrack North Carolina, Scores of tornadoes reported across state April 19 - Illinois Tornado Outbreak / Storms rip into Central, Southern Illinois April 20 - Dozens of tornadoes rip through Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Georgia, Virginia and Kentucky; death toll from the severe weather to more than 248 April 21 - Hawley, Texas Supercell and Tornado April 22 - Saint Louis “Good Friday” Tornado, Airport Closes Indefinitely After Tornado Rips Through Terminal April 23 - North Texas Tornadic Supercell! April 24 - Texas Tornadoes! Louisville, KY flooding April 25 - Residents flee as river overflows Missouri levee / Flooding Continues... More Rain Expected April 26 - Storms Leave 7 Dead in Arkansas, All but Wipe Out Town April 27 - Tornadoes rip through Alabama, Tuscaloosa tornado hardest-hit with 162 deaths April 28 - Tornadoes and Storms Tear Through South; at Least 292 Dead April 29 - Federal judge gives Army Corps of Engineers OK to break Missouri Birds Point Levee May 1 - Druidic Feast of Beltaine - Supreme Court refuses to halt Missouri levee breach May 2 - Army Corps Breaks Southeast Missouri Levee May 3 - Missouri farmland swamped after levee breach to help Cairo, Illinois / 2nd levee blast May 4 - Army Corps: 3rd levee blast rescheduled for around 1 p.m. Thursday May 5 - Memphis flooding next after levee blast May 6 - Memphis residents warned: Flee the flood / Louisiana Flooding Emergency Declared May 7 - Watery week ahead as Mississippi floodwaters hit Memphis, move downriver May 8 - Flooding in Memphis Tennessee, evacuations empty more than 1,300 homes May 9 - Arkansas Flooding: I-40 Remains Closed in East Arkansas May 10 - Arkansas Farmland Lost as Flood Waters Move Toward Louisiana May 11 - The Swollen Mississippi, Flooding Continues, Mississippi Delta braces for more flooding May 12 - Lafourche Parish declares state of emergency / Mississippi River threat requires Morganza Spillway to be opened May 13 - It’s a go: Spillway to inundate Cajun country; 3,000,000 acres of Arkansas, Mississippi and Tennessee farmland flooded. May 14 - Louisiana Opens Spillway as Mississippi River Gushes Through Cajun Countryside; 25,000 Homes May Be Lost May 15 - Thousands of homes sacrificed to save New Orleans from Mississippi floods May 16 - Space Shuttle “Endeavor” [STS-134 Mission], launched from Kennedy Space Center / More Floodgates Opened at Morganza Spillway; FEMA begins National Level Exercises (NLE) in preparation for national catastrophic event May 17 - New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) Flooded, ground saturated, water weight on already earthquake prone fault zone May 18 - Rising Mississippi River floods Vicksburg, MS after levee fails May 19 - NOAA chief warns of rapid onset of ‘unprecedented’ changes in oceans May 20 - US Army Corps of Engineers opened more bays on the Morganza Floodway, increasing rate of water surging into LA to 114,000 cu ft./ sec. May 21 - Ada, OK tornado May 22 - Joplin, MO two-celled F5 tornado devastates town / deadliest since 1953; Total devastation of Joplin - death toll 134 May 23 - Huge land hurricane with eye damages 200 homes in Kansas May 24 - Huge multi-vortex HAARP tornado hits Oklahoma City leaves 50 mile trail of damage / 36 tornadoes in 7 states May 25 - Massive HAARP tornado rips through Oklahoma; tornado roars through Sedalia, MO; tornado hits Denning/Altus, AR; Northwest Arkansas flooded, 14 in.48 hours May 26 - Atlanta Tornado Storm May 27 - Montpelier, Vermont Flood May 28 - Greater Philadelphia 1.7 earthquake May 29 - Unit 2 reactor shut down at nuclear power plant in Limerick, PA, 20 miles northwest of Philadelphia May 30 - Huge storm system with tornados moving into Midwest and North East US May 31 - Space Shuttle “Endeavour” landed at Kennedy Space Center / Space Shuttle “Atlantis” [STS-135 Mission] moved to launch pad June 1 - Tornado outbreak causes heavy damage in Massachusetts; F3 tornado in Springfield; State of Emergency declared, 1,000 National Guard called up June 2 - Missouri River flooding; So. Dakota governor urges evacuations; FEMA on location; Army Corps to break S.D. dams to release MO River flooding to Mississippi River, which will add more water weight on top of New Madrid fault.
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_________________ What is life? It is the flash of a firefly in the night, the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset. With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
A brilliant meteor blazed through the sky above Georgia recently, and two NASA fireball-monitoring cameras caught the dramatic display on video. The meteor was caused by a human-size chunk of an unknown comet. It was the brightest meteor yet recorded by NASA's fireball-observing network — based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. — in its nearly three years of operation, officials said. The 6-foot-wide (1.8-meter) space rock barrelled into Earth's atmosphere at 10:47 p.m. EDT on May 20 (0247 GMT on May 21), about 66 miles (106 kilometers) above the city of Macon, Ga. [Video of the bright Macon meteor] Cameras ready and waiting Two NASA all-sky cameras, both located in northwest Georgia, tracked the resulting meteor and captured it on video. Analysis of the videos allowed scientists to calculate the basics of the object's speed, trajectory, mass and orbit. When it entered the atmosphere, the comet chunk was traveling northwest at about 86,000 mph (138,404 kph), researchers said. At this velocity, the boulder-size "dirty snowball" possessed an energy or striking power somewhere between 500 and 1,000 tons of TNT. But that striking power was never realized on the ground. The Macon meteoroid was too small, and made of the wrong kind of stuff, to survive the trip through Earth's atmosphere, researchers said. Indeed, the video shows four distinct flares emanating from the comet chunk as it broke apart multiple times. After a last burst of light, the meteor burned up completely 38 miles (61 km) above the town of Villa Rica, Ga., officials said. The Macon meteor qualifies as a fireball, which is officially defined as a meteor that shines brighter than Venus in the sky. Fireballs like the May 20 event are impressive but not terribly unusual. Objects as big as washing machines typically fall into Earth's atmosphere on a monthly basis, but most of them burn up before reaching the ground. Many of the resulting fireballs are not seen because they occur over remote areas or over oceans (which cover more than two-thirds of Earth's surface). A robotic fireball-monitoring network NASA's meteor-watching network, run by the Meteoroid Environment Office at Marshall, currently consists of four robotic cameras: the two in Georgia, one in Huntsville, and one in southern Tennessee. These "smart" cameras are linked into a computer system that automatically analyzes their video, then calculates relevant information about incoming space rocks' trajectories and orbits. Researchers hope to place a total of 15 such cameras in various locations throughout the eastern United States, which has few such systems, NASA officials said. The overall goal of the camera system is to learn much more about the pieces of space rock that strike Earth and our atmosphere — how big they are, what they're made of and where they come from, researchers have said. http://beta.news.yahoo.com/man-size-meteor-comet-lights-georgia-sky-165405130.html
_________________ What is life? It is the flash of a firefly in the night, the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset. With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
WEATHER MODIFICATION A COVERT WEAPON OF MASS DESTRUCTION
“And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.” Revelation 11:18
OVERVIEW OF WEATHER MODIFICATION IN THE USA VIDEO PRESENTATION: “AEROSOL CRIMES & COVER UP” PHOTOS OF ARKANSAS CHEMTRAILS “HOW TO WRECK THE ENVIRONMENT” by GORDON MACDONALD CHRONOLOGY OF WEATHER MODIFICATION IN SPRING OF 2011
By Barbara Aho June 2, 2011 AN OVERVIEW OF WEATHER MODIFICATION IN THE USA
Between 1962 and 1983, the United States Navy, the U.S. Weather Bureau and the National Science Foundation carried out an experimental research program that was yielding some success in moderating hurricanes. Project Stormfury, however, was suspended and eventually terminated for specious reasons. Commenting on an overview of The Stormfury Era by the Hurricane Research Division of the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Dick Eastman, MS, MA noted that the privatization of the weather-related government agencies was a factor in the termination of this project:
“[Project Stormfury] was discontinued just as new planes for doing the interventions were made available. It seems that we had a deliberate effort to stifle success at the very time that the national weather bureau and other weather-related government agencies were being privatized (the National Weather Service, like the Federal Reserve Bank, the Atomic Energy Commission and the National Science Foundation are privately owned and controlled organizations -
- each operating in their respective fields in totally unregulated and largely unsupervised environments, with the public thinking that each is part of the government...
“Storm Fury demonstrated -- regardless of the sophistry -- that hurricane winds can be reduced from 130 mph to 75 or 80 mph -- a difference that means the a difference of billions in damages and of doubtless many lives.
“But we are not only seeing the deliberate decision to let disaster happen when it could be prevented -- we are seeing something much worse -- the deliberate use of this technology developed by minds that sought to help mankind as a means of destroying our homes and killing our people for the sake of ’disaster-industry’ profit and ‘national-emergency’ power.” (1096)
Gordon J. F. MacDonald (1929-2002) was an associate director of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at UCLA, a member of President Lyndon Johnson’s Science Advisory Committee and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. In his 1968 book, Unless Peace Comes: A Scientific Forecast Of New Weapons, MacDonald wrote a chapter titled “How to Wreck the Environment” (read below) in which he revealed that weather modification was in the experimental stages. MacDonald predicted that it would only be a matter of time before man would be able to manipulate the weather for use as a weapon:
“Among future means of obtaining national objectives by force, one possibility hinges on man’s ability to control and manipulate the environment of his planet. When achieved, this power over his environment will provide man with a new force capable of doing great and indiscriminate damage. Our present primitive understanding of deliberate environmental change makes it difficult to imagine a world in which geophysical warfare is practised. Such a world might be one in which nuclear weapons were effectively banned and the weapons of mass destruction were those of environmental catastrophe. As I will argue, these weapons are peculiarly suited for covert or secret wars...
“As economic competition among many advanced nations heightens, it may be to a country’s advantage to ensure a peaceful natural environment for itself and a disturbed environment for its competitors. Operations producing such conditions might be carried out covertly, since nature’s great irregularity permits storms, ﬂoods, droughts, earthquakes and tidal waves to be viewed as unusual but not unexpected. Such a ‘secret war’ need never be declared or even known by the affected populations. It could go on for years with only the security forces involved being aware of it. The years of drought and storm would be attributed to unkindly nature and only after a nation were thoroughly drained would an armed take-over be attempted.
“In addition to their covert nature, a feature common to several modiﬁcation schemes is their ability to affect the Earth as a whole. The environment knows no political boundaries; it is independent of the institutions based on geography and the effects of modiﬁcation can be projected from any one point to any other on the Earth. Because environmental modiﬁcation may be a dominant feature of future world decades, there is concern that this incipient technology is in total conﬂict with many of the traditional geographical and political units and concepts.
“Political, legal, economic and sociological consequences of deliberate environmental modiﬁcation, even for peaceful purposes, will be of such complexity that perhaps all our present involvements in nuclear affairs will seem simple.”
In his 1970 book, Between Two Ages, former U.S. National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brezezinski (CFR/TC/B) mentioned “weather control” as a “new weapon” and a “key element of strategy.”
“Technology will make available, to the leaders of major nations, techniques for conducting secret warfare, of which only a bare minimum of the security forces need be appraised... Techniques of weather modification could be employed to produce prolonged periods of drought or storm.”
Also in 1970, the U.S. Weather Bureau was renamed the National Weather Service and the privatization of the weather-related government agencies began, a process that was expedited under President Bill Clinton.
“In accordance with the Administration’s FY 1996 Proposed Budget and the Administration’s Reinventing Government initiatives issued in early 1995, the National Weather Service (NWS) initiated a transition program to transfer NWS Agricultural Weather Services and non-federal non-wildfire weather support to private meteorological firms willing to assume these responsibilities...
“The transition of agricultural weather services to the private sector is dynamic. Both the NWS and the private meteorological sector will need to continue to work together to provide maximum service to the nation’s growers. Privatization efforts are not new to the NWS. Over the years, the NWS has transferred services such as direct commercial radio and television broadcasts, newspaper weather page preparation, and weather by phone successfully to the private sector.” (National Weather Service)
In 1977, the Geneva Convention proposed an international treaty prohibiting the military or other hostile use of environmental modification techniques. The Convention opened for signature on May 18, 1977 in Geneva and the treaty was enforced on October 5, 1978. Eighty-seven (87) nations signed this treaty:
CONVENTION ON THE PROHIBITION OF MILITARY OR ANY OTHER HOSTILE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES Signed in Geneva May 18, 1977 Entered into force October 5, 1978 Ratification by U.S. President December 13, 1979 U.S. ratification deposited at New York January 17, 1980
The States Parties to this Convention,
Guided by the interest of consolidating peace, and wishing to contribute to the cause of halting the arms race, and of bringing about general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control, and of saving mankind from the danger of using new means of warfare,
Determined to continue negotiations with a view to achieving effective progress towards further measures in the field of disarmament,
Recognizing that scientific and technical advances may open new possibilities with respect to modification of the environment,
Recalling the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment adopted at Stockholm on 16 June 1972,
Realizing that the use of environmental modification techniques for peaceful purposes could improve the interrelationship of man and nature and contribute to the preservation and improvement of the environment for the benefit of present and future generations,
Recognizing, however, that military or any other hostile use of such techniques could have effects extremely harmful to human welfare,
Desiring to prohibit effectively military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques in order to eliminate the dangers to mankind from such use, and affirming their willingness to work towards the achievement of this objective,
Desiring also to contribute to the strengthening of trust among nations and to the further improvement of the international situation in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations,
Have agreed as follows:
Article I 1. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to any other State Party.
2. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to assist, encourage or induce any State, group of States or international organization to engage in activities contrary to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this article. (continued)
In 1996, the U.S. Air Force published a research paper produced in the Department of Defense titled, “Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025.” Disregarding the Geneva Convention Treaty on Weather Modification, the stated purpose of the paper was “to outline a strategy for the use of a future weather-modification system to achieve military objectives...”
“2025 is a study designed to comply with a directive from the chief of staff of the Air Force to examine the concepts, capabilities, and technologies the United States will require to remain the dominant air and space force in the future. Presented on 17 June 1996, this report was produced in the Department of Defense school environment of academic freedom and in the interest of advancing concepts related to national defense. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States government...
“In 2025, US aerospace forces can ‘own the weather’ by capitalizing on emerging technologies and focusing development of those technologies to war-fighting applications. Such a capability offers the war fighter tools to shape the battlespace in ways never before possible. It provides opportunities to impact operations across the full spectrum of conflict and is pertinent to all possible futures. The purpose of this paper is to outline a strategy for the use of a future weather-modification system to achieve military objectives rather than to provide a detailed technical road map.
“A high-risk, high-reward endeavor, weather-modification offers a dilemma not unlike the splitting of the atom. While some segments of society will always be reluctant to examine controversial issues such as weather-modification, the tremendous military capabilities that could result from this field are ignored at our own peril. From enhancing friendly operations or disrupting those of the enemy via small-scale tailoring of natural weather patterns to complete dominance of global communications and counterspace control, weather-modification offers the war fighter a wide-range of possible options to defeat or coerce an adversary...”
Disclaimer Illustrations Tables Acknowledgments Executive Summary Introduction Required Capability Why Would We Want to Mess with the Weather? What Do We Mean by “Weather-modification”? System Description The Global Weather Network Applying Weather-modification to Military Operations Concept of Operations Precipitation Fog Storms Exploitation of “NearSpace” for Space Control Opportunities Afforded by Space Weather-modification Communications Dominance via Ionospheric Modification Artificial Weather Concept of Operations Summary Investigation Recommendations How Do We Get There From Here? Conclusions
Appendix A Why Is the Ionosphere Important? B Research to Better Understand and Predict Ionospheric Effects C Acronyms and Definitions
Bibliography Notes Illustrations Figure
3-1. Global Weather Network 3-2. The Military System for Weather-Modification Operations 4-1. Crossed-Beam Approach for Generating an Artificial Ionospheric Mirror 4-2. Artificial Ionospheric Mirrors Point-to-Point Communications 4-3. Artificial Ionospheric Mirror Over-the-Horizon Surveillance Concept 4-4. Scenarios for Telecommunications Degradation 5-1. A Core Competency Road Map to Weather Modification in 2025 5-2. A Systems Development Road Map to Weather Modification in 2025
1 - Operational Capabilities Matrix
In 1997, former Secretary of Defense William Cohen revealed that electromagnetic weapons were being used to manipulate the environment. The following remarks were made by Cohen at a Conference on Terrorism, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and U.S. Strategy held in Athens, GA:
“Others [scientists] are engaging even in an eco-type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves... So there are plenty of ingenious minds out there that are at work finding ways in which they can wreak terror upon other nations... It’s real, and that’s the reason why we have to intensify our efforts.” (U.S. Department of Defense News Transcript
In 2005, bills that would have regulated the various weather agencies were introduced in both houses of the U.S. Congress. H.R. 2995 was designed to officially institutionalize within the U.S. Government a major “weather modification” policy and program under the Secretary of the Department of Commerce. Senate Bill S. 517, entitled “Weather Modification Research and Technology Transfer Authorization Act of 2005” and scheduled to take effect on October 1, 2005, stated:
“It is the purpose of this Act to develop and implement a comprehensive and coordinated national weather modification policy and a national cooperative Federal and State program of weather modification research and development...
“The Board may enter into cooperative agreements with the head of any department or agency of the United States, an appropriate official of any State or political subdivision of a State, or an appropriate official of any private or public agency or organization for conducting weather modification activities or cloud-seeding operations.
“There is authorized to be appropriated to the Board for the purposes of carrying out the provisions of this Act $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2005 through 2014.”
H.R. 2995 Weather Modification Research and Technology Transfer Authorization Act of 2005
S. 517: Weather Modification Research and Development Policy Authorization Act of 2005
The stated purpose of the Act was “to develop and implement a comprehensive and coordinated national weather modification policy and a national cooperative Federal and State program of weather modification research and development.” A Weather Modification Subcommittee was to be established comprised of representatives from NOAA, NASA and the National Science Foundation who would submit reports to and be accountable to Congress and the President:
Section 4 Directs the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy to establish a Weather Modification Subcommittee to coordinate a national research program on weather modification. Requires the Subcommittee to include representatives from: (1) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); (2) the National Science Foundation (NSF); and (3) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Provides for a representative from NOAA and a representative from NSF to serve together as co-chairs of such Subcommittee.
Requires the Director to develop and submit a plan for coordinated federal activities under the program, which shall: (1) for a ten-year period, establish the goals and priorities for federal research that most effectively advances scientific understanding of weather modification; (2) describe specific activities required to achieve such goals and priorities, including funding of competitive research grants, training and support for scientists, and participation in international research efforts; (3) identify and address, as appropriate, relevant programs and activities of the federal agencies and departments that would contribute to the program; (4) consider and use, as appropriate, reports and studies conducted by federal agencies and departments, and other expert scientific bodies, including the National Research Council report on Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research; (5) make recommendations for the coordination of program activities with weather modification activities of other national and international organizations; (6) incorporate recommendations from the Weather Modification Research Advisory Board; and (7) estimate federal funding for research activities to be conducted under the program.
Specifies activities related to weather modification that may be included under the program, including: (1) interdisciplinary research and coordination of research and activities to improve understanding of processes relating to weather modification, including cloud modeling, cloud seeding, improving forecast and decision-making technologies, related severe weather research, and potential adverse affects of weather modification; (2) development, through partnerships among federal agencies, states, and academic institutions, of new technologies and approaches for weather modification; and (3) scholarships and educational opportunities that encourage an interdisciplinary approach to weather modification.
Requires the Director to prepare and submit to the President and Congress annual reports on the activities conducted pursuant to this Act respecting the Weather Modification Subcommittee, including: (1) a summary of the achievements of federal weather modification research; (2) an analysis of the progress made toward achieving the goals and objectives of the plan; (3) a copy or summary of the plan and any changes made to it; (4) a summary of agency budgets for weather modification activities; (5) any recommendations regarding additional action or legislation that may be required to assist in achieving the purposes of this Act; (6) a description of the relationship between research conducted on weather modification and research conducted pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, as well as research on weather forecasting and prediction; and (7) a description of any potential adverse consequences on life, property, or water resource availability from weather modification efforts, and any suggested means of mitigating or reducing such consequences if such efforts are undertaken.
Section 5 Establishes in the Office of Science and Technology Policy the Weather Modification Research Advisory Board to: (1) make recommendations to the Weather Modification Subcommittee on matters related to weather modification; and (2) advise such Subcommittee on the research and development, studies, and investigations with respect to potential uses of technologies and observation systems for weather modification research and assessments and evaluations of the efficacy of weather modification, both purposeful, (including cloud-seeding operations) and inadvertent (including downwind effects and anthropogenic effects).
Section 6 Instructs U.S. departments and agencies and any other public or private agencies and institutions that receive research funds from the United States related to weather modification to give full support and cooperation to the Weather Modification Subcommittee.
Further consideration of the S. Bill 517 was tabled by request of President Bush and neither bill was passed.
“In a December 13, 2005, letter to Senator Hutchison, John H. Marburger, III, Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, wrote:
“The Administration respectfully requests that you defer further consideration of the bill pending the outcome of an inter-agency discussion of these issues that the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) would coordinate – with the Department of Justice on legal issues, with the Department of State on foreign policy implications, with the Departments of Defense and State on national security implications, and with pertinent research agencies to consider the reasons the U.S. Government previously halted its work in this area. At the conclusion of this review, the Administration would report back to you on the results of these discussions so you are fully apprised of all possible issues associated with authorizing a new Federal program on this topic.” (SourceWatch) Another bill was was proposed in 2007 which also did not pass. The intent of S. 1807 was to permit experimentation on the weather in the United States:
S. 1807: Weather Mitigation Research and Development Policy Authorization Act of 2007
“(3) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT- The term ‘research and development’ means theoretical analysis, exploration, experimentation, and the extension of investigative findings and theories of a scientific or technical nature into practical application for experimental and demonstration purposes, including the experimental production and testing of models, devices, equipment, materials, and processes.” A watchdog organization in California protested the outrageous and alarming prospect of “experimenting” on the environment.
Experimental weather modification coming to your neighborhood, soon 11-02-07
“Prepare yourself for more water shortages, floods, droughts, and a sharp decline in food supplies in the United States when U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445, that were introduced on July 17, 2007, are voted into law...
“Senate Bill 1807 does not address these issues but intends to implement more experimental weather modification programs without a national debate or public oversight...
“The December 2005 Popular Science Magazine discussed a plan to use an oil slick to stop hurricanes without noting the adverse environmental impacts of the oil used to cover the ocean. Popular Science also noted that a private company, Dyn-O-Mat had been conducting ‘…early trials. In July 2001, Dyn-O-Mat engineers dumped 8,000 pounds of their Dyn-O-Mat Gel (capable of absorbing 4,000 tons of water), over a small thunderstorm near the Florida coast. Within minutes the storm disappeared from Doppler weather radar…’
“When this toxic secret chemical drops into the ocean or over land what are the environmental effects? Who is studying what happens to marine life, crops, soils, and drinking water supplies when this chemical mixes with rainfall on the ground?
“According to Popular Science ‘…Dyn-O-Mat’s founder and CEO, has already arranged to lease a specially rigged 747 ‘supertanker’ to conduct trials on actual hurricanes. Meanwhile, he has assembled an all-star team of scientists and labs at Florida State University, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, NOAA, and elsewhere to begin running computer models that analyze the gel’s effect on larger storms…’We already know the gel works’, says Cordani…’Now we need to figure out how much to use and where to put it’…‘Could hurricane and other experiments be causing drought in Georgia and other states in 2007?’”
A Dyn-O-Mat Plan to Avoid Disaster? is also quite interesting. Was the BP oil spill an experiment to see what they could do with this gel product? The BP oil spill happened during the Hurricane Season. Who knows what experiments they were really doing out there in the Gulf?
In 2011, the House of Rothschild acquired a majority stake in Weather Central, the world’s leader in weather, forecasting, traffic, news and sports systems. January 31, 2011 03:27 PM Eastern Daylight Time
“E.L. Rothschild LLC Acquires a Majority Stake in Weather Central, LP Sir Evelyn and Lynn Forester de Rothschild’s Firm Sees Opportunity for Growth in Multi-Platform Weather Solutions Company”
“NEW YORK--(BUSINESS WIRE)--E.L. Rothschild LLC, a private investment company led by Chairman Sir Evelyn de Rothschild and CEO Lynn Forester de Rothschild, today announced the signing of a definitive agreement to acquire a 70% interest in Weather Central, LP (www.wxc.com). The world’s leading provider of interactive weather graphics and data services for television, web, and mobile, Weather Central’s highly accurate and personalized forecasting offers businesses and consumers a truly unique suite of science-driven weather information products. The company will continue to operate under CEO and founder, Terry Kelly, as well as current management. Financial terms of the acquisition were not disclosed...
“Chairman of E.L. Rothschild LLC, Sir Evelyn de Rothschild, added: ‘... As weather becomes more extreme around the planet, with greater human and financial ramifications, we believe that Weather Central will play a major role in mitigating damage and improving lives. This is important to the Rothschilds, as it is to Weather Central. We are proud of our new partnership with them.’” (BusinessWire)
Weather experimentation and modification are a life or death issue that must involve public discussion, informed consent and accountability to all Americans. Passage of H.R. 2995 would have required government transparency and limited the use of weather modification for the welfare of the people. The failure of the Congress to establish a national policy board and a program for weather modification that is accountable the American people made it possible for the government to work in secret with agencies and private corporations in covert weather modification operations. That government transparency, regulation and accountability were so readily tabled supports the case that the present use of weather modification is not for humanitarian purposes, but for the wrong reasons.
Weather Modification, Inc. is one private company in North Dakota that provides full-service aerial and ground-based “cloud seeding” for private entities and governments in the U.S. and around the world. Weather Modification, Inc. is not regulated by the U.S. government, at least not by law, and is therefore unaccountable to the American citizens who are affected by its cloud seeding operations. WMI’s Clients & Projects page appears to have been sanitized of any incriminating evidence and it seems remarkable, given the immensely destructive storms currently ravaging parts of the U.S., that WMI reports only a few recent client projects in the country.
North Dakota Cloud Modification Project (NDCMP) Objective: Hail Damage Mitigation and Rainfall Enhancement Duration: 1961 - Present
Upper Payette River Basin Cloud Seeding Program (Idaho) Objective: Snowpack Augmentation Duration: 2002 - Present
Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Program Objective: Snowpack Augmentation and Atmospheric Assessment and Evaluation Duration: 2005-Present
Even this evidence is revealing, for these projects demonstrate that Weather Modification, Inc. has not mitigated but instead intensified the rainfall and subsequent flooding of the Missouri River, which is presently at disaster levels. With the National Guard and FEMA on location, the Army Corps of Engineers is preparing to break South Dakota dams to release Missouri River flooding into Mississippi River.
On June 2, CNN iReport stated, “At the moment, we’ve got our eye on the Missouri River basin, where the Dakotas, Iowa, Nebraska and other states are under water or bracing for flooding from record rains and melting snow in the northern Rocky Mountains. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has urged people living along the river to make evacuation plans.” Reuters today reported mandatory evacuations in North Dakota:
“Flooding forces North Dakota evacuations
“SALMON, Idaho (Reuters) - Rising waters forced evacuations in Minot, North Dakota, on Tuesday as officials in South Dakota raced to finish levees to protect the state capital and other cities from the swollen Missouri River.
“Mandatory evacuations over the next couple of days are expected to displace 10,000 to 12,000 Minot residents as the Souris River, a tributary of the Red River, eclipses records set in damaging floods of 1976 and 1969, officials said.
“Communities along the Upper Missouri River basin also are bracing for flooding as officials plan historic water releases to relieve pressure on six reservoirs from Montana through South Dakota from heavy rains and a thick melting snowpack.”
The following AP report also states that “heavy runoff from melting Rocky Mountain snow could soon compound the problem.” Well, Weather Modification, Inc. has, for many years, been augmenting the snow supply in the Rocky Mountains in the Mountain states of Idaho and Wyoming, which is also in the Missouri River Basin! WMI has also been enhancing the rainfall with cloud seeding in North Dakota, though which the Missouri River flows!
“Residents of Dakota Dunes construct a wall to protect a home against the rising waters of the Missouri River, in Dakota Dunes, S.D., Wednesday, June 1 AP – By WAYNE ORTMAN, Associated Press – Thu Jun 2, 6:07 am ET
“DAKOTA DUNES, S.D. – South Dakota's governor has urged some residents to evacuate from three cities considered early trouble spots as officials brace for a prolonged period of Missouri River flooding.
“Gov. Dennis Daugaard asked residents in threatened areas in the state capital of Pierre and neighboring Fort Pierre as well as residents of Dakota Dunes to evacuate by Thursday night. Daugaard's announcement was a request and not a mandatory evacuation, but law enforcement officials were going door-to-door Wednesday evening to tell residents about it.
“Flooding is a concern as the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers releases excess water from Missouri River dams after record rainfall across the northern Plains. Heavy runoff from melting Rocky Mountains' snow could soon compound the problem, and officials say flooding could last into July.” (Associated Press 6/2/11)
Authorities are preparing the state for “a prolonged period of Missouri River flooding...which could last into July.” Moreover, the massive, swollen Missouri River will eventually empty into the Mississippi River, which will place more water weight on the already overtaxed New Madrid Seismic Zone. To understand the dire ramifications of an earthquake on the New Madrid fault line, please read: “Death of the Phoenix: Destruction of the Bible Belt.”
An excellent video presentation on weather modification, specifically by means of aerosol operations (“chemtrails”), was made by Clifford Carnicom, a former technical research scientist for the U.S. Department of Defense. In the course of his research, Mr. Carnicom discovered that weather modification is indeed a covert operation securely guarded and controlled by Department of Defense and military intelligence.
“After confronting the reality of the changes that have been made to the planet, it is a natural question to ask, Why? Why would anyone want to? And who would want to alter the very air that we breathe? We may never know the true answers to these questions, the evidence is now clear that the aerosol operations are a covert operation, an operation that is never to be discussed or disclosed using the traditional channels of a free and democratic society, an operation that will never ask for your consent or for your participation and that will be conducted regardless of your concern. The answers, especially as to 'why', do not appear to be simple or restricted to a single purpose. The more that is understood about the nature and potential of the operations, the more complex the picture appears.”
[Note: It is possible to understand who is attempting to destroy the Earth and why they are doing it. Please see our report Heeding Bible Prophecy: Earth Destroyed,]
Clifford Carnicom then proceeded to identify and describe five areas of weather modification currently being conducted by the U.S. government as stealth operations.
“What can be done, however, is to use the vast body of evidence that has been collected at a grass roots level to make interpretations that are at least consistent with this data. This has been done and there are now five major areas of endeavor which are in agreement with the observations, data and analysis that extends for more than five years. These are:
1. Environmental Engineering, Modification and Control / “The evidence now shows that the very physical nature of the atmosphere has been changed... The moisture levels of weather systems have been altered.“ 2. Electromagnetic Operations / “Barium modifies the atmosphere electrically and the basic electrical properties of our atmosphere have been changed. Changes in heat and energy are at the foundation of the life of this planet and all who dwell upon it.” 3. Military & Intelligence Operations / Control the level of disclosure and discussion of aerosol operations. HAARP / High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program is operated by the Air Force. HAARP is based on Bernard Eastlund’s U.S. Patent #4,686,605, “Method and Apparatus for Altering a Region in the Earth's Atmosphere, Ionosphere; and/or Magnetosphere” 4. Biological Operations / Germ Warfare 5. Planetary and Geophysical Change
“These areas are not mutually exclusive to one another. There is an overlap that can make it difficult to discern where one program may start and another end. It is quite possible that any, and indeed likely that many or all of these operations are being conducted concurrently. What can be done within this brief segment is to explain why these programs are consistent with the broad spectrum of evidence which is now available to examine.”
AEROSOL CRIMES & COVER UP Clifford E. Carnicom
“If the chemtrail operations seem too big to keep under wraps, consider the Manhattan Project (which developed the A-bomb). It was equivalent in size to the American automobile industry, employing about 130,000 people! It was kept entirely secret with compartmentalization, a current practice which keeps information divided and separate.” Dick Eastman, www.bariumblues.com
more at link: http://watch-unto-prayer.org/weather-modification.html
HOW TO WRECK THE ENVIRONMENT Chapter from Unless Peace Comes by Gordon J. F. MacDonald U.S.A. 1968 [Abridged]
Among future means of obtaining national objectives by force, one possibility hinges on man’s ability to control and manipulate the environment of his planet. When achieved, this power over his environment will provide man with a new force capable of doing great and indiscriminate damage. Our present primitive understanding of deliberate environmental change makes it difficult to imagine a world in which geophysical warfare is practised. Such a world might be one in which nuclear weapons were effectively banned and the weapons of mass destruction were those of environmental catastrophe. As I will argue, these weapons are peculiarly suited for covert or secret wars. Substantial progress within the environmental sciences is slowly overcoming the gap between fact and fiction regarding manipulations of the Earth’s physical environment. As these manipulations become possible, history shows that attempts may be made to use them in support of national ambitions. To consider the consequences of environmental modification in struggles among nations, we need to consider the present state of the subject and how postulated developments in the field could lead, ten to fifty years from now, to weapons systems that would use nature in new and perhaps unexpected ways.
The key to geophysical warfare is the identification of the environmental instabilities to which the addition of a small amount of energy would release vastly greater amounts of energy. Environmental instability is a situation in which nature has stored energy in some part of the Earth or its surroundings far in excess of that which is usual. To trigger this instability, the required energy might be introduced violently by explosions or gently by small bits of material able to induce rapid changes by acting as catalysts or nucleating agents. The mechanism for energy storage might be the accumulation of strain over hundreds of millions of years in the solid Earth, or the super-cooling of water vapour in the atmosphere by updraughts taking place over a few tens of minutes. Effects of releasing this energy could be world-wide, as in the case of altering climate, or regional, as in the case of locally excited earthquakes or enhanced precipitation.
The Earth’s atmosphere is an envelope of air which rotates, for the most part, at the same speed as the underlying continents and oceans. The relative motion between the atmosphere and the Earth arises from sources and sinks of energy which vary in location and strength but which have, as their ultimate source, the Sun’s radiation. The quantities of energy involved in weather systems exceed by a substantial margin the quantity of energy under man’s direct control.
For instance, the typical amount of energy expended in a single tornado funnel is equivalent to about fifty kilotons of explosives; a single thunderstorm tower exchanges about ten times this much energy during its lifetime; an Atlantic hurricane of moderate size may draw from the sea more than 1,000 megatons of energy. These vast quantities of energy make it unlikely that brute-force techniques will lead to sensible weather modification. Results could be achieved, however, by working on the instabilities in the atmosphere.
We are now beginning to understand several kinds of instabilities in the atmosphere. Supercooled water droplets in cold clouds are unstable, but they remain liquid for substantial periods of time unless supplied with nuclei on which they can freeze. Conversion of water droplets to ice through the introduction of artificial nuclei can provide a local source of energy. This released heat can cause rising air currents which in turn lead to further formation of supercooled water. This process may lead to rainfall at the ground greater than that which would have been produced without the artificial nucleation. A second instability may arise, in which water vapour condenses into water, again affecting the distribution of sensible energy. On a larger scale, there is the so-called baroclinic instability of atmospheric waves that girdle the planet. Through the imbalance of heat between equator and pole, energy in this instability is stored, to be released in the creation of large cyclonic storms in the temperate zones. There are other, less well understood instabilities capable of affecting climate; I shall return to them later.
As far as military applications are concerned, I conjecture that precipitation enhancement would have a limited value in classical tactical situations, and then only in the future when controls are more thoroughly understood. A nation possessing superior technology in environmental manipulation could damage an adversary without revealing its intent.
Modification of storms, too, could have major strategic implications. As I have mentioned, preliminary experiments have been carried out on the seeding of hurricanes. The dynamics of hurricanes and the mechanism by which energy is transferred from the ocean into the atmosphere supporting the hurricane are poorly understood. Yet various schemes for both dissipation and steering can be imagined. At present we are a long way from having the basic data and understanding necessary to carry out such experiments; nevertheless, the long-term possibility of developing and applying such techniques under the cover of nature’s irregularities presents a disquieting prospect.
In considering whether or not climate modification is possible, it is useful to examine climate variations under natural conditions. Firm geological evidence exists of a long sequence of Ice Ages, in the relatively recent past, which shows that the world’s climate has been in a state of slow evolution. There is also good geological, archaeological and historical evidence for a pattern of smaller, more rapid fluctuations superimposed on the slow evolutionary change. For example, in Europe the climate of the early period following the last Ice Age was continental, with hot summers and cold winters. In the sixth millennium B.C., there was a change to a warm humid climate with a mean temperature of 5ºF higher than at present and a heavy rainfall that caused considerable growth of peat. This period, known as a climatic optimum, was accentuated in Scandinavia by a land subsidence which permitted a greater influx of warm Atlantic water into the large Baltic Sea.
Indeed, climate is primarily determined by the balance between the incoming short-wave from the Sun (principally light) and the loss of outgoing long-wave radiation (principally heat).
Three factors dominate the balance: the energy of the Sun, the surface character of terrestrial regions (water, ice, vegetation, desert, etc.), and the transparency of the Earth’s atmosphere to different forms of radiated energy. In the last connection, the effect of clouds in making cool days and relatively warm nights is a matter of familiar experience. But clouds are a manifestation rather than an original determinant of weather and climate; of more fundamental significance is the effect of gases in the atmosphere, which absorb much of the radiation in transit from the Sun to the Earth or from the Earth into space. Intense X-rays and ultra-violet from the Sun, together with high-energy atomic particles, are arrested in the upper atmosphere. Only the narrow band of visible light and some short radio waves traverse the atmosphere without serious interruption.
At present, we can only tentatively speculate about modifying the short-wave radiation at its source, the Sun. We have discovered major instabilities on the Sun’s surface which might be manipulated many years hence. In a solar flare, for example, 1010 megatons of energy are stored in distorted magnetic fields. With advanced techniques of launching rockets and setting off large explosions, we may sometime in the future learn to trigger these instabilities. For the near future, however, modification will not be in the short-wave in-coming radiation but in the long-wave outgoing radiation.
What causes earthquakes? Over geological time, the irregular distribution of heat-producing radioactive elements in the rock layers gives rise to sub-surface temperature differences between various parts of the Earth. In the continents, granites and similar rocks have concentrated radioactive elements near the surface; no similar concentration has taken place in the sub-oceanic regions, which may as a result be more than 100ºC cooler than the corresponding sub-continental regions. Such variations in temperature along a horizontal line, due to the differences in the vertical distribution of heat-producing elements, give rise to large thermal stresses, causing strain analogous to that which cracks a glass tumbler filled with hot water. The strain tends to be greatest in regions of abrupt temperature change along a horizontal line through the Earth’s crust. The strain may be partially relieved by the slow convective flow of material in the deep Earth which is thought by some geophysicists to push continents about. But the strain can also be relieved by sharp fractures or by movements along previous faults in rocks near the surface. Movement along a fault radiates energy outward, which results in an earthquake. Each year approximately 200 megatons of strain energy is released in this fashion, the largest earthquakes corresponding to energy of the order of 100 megatons.
Major earthquakes tend to be located along two main belts. One belt, along which about eighty-five per cent of the total energy is released, passes around the Pacific and affects countries whose coastlines border this ocean, for example Japan and the west coast of North America. The second belt passes through the Mediterranean regions eastwards through Asia and joins the first belt in Indonesia. Along these two belts, large earthquakes occur with varying frequencies.
The use as a weapon system of the strain energy instability within the solid Earth requires an effective triggering mechanism.
MODIFICATION OF OCEANS
We are still in the very early stages of developing the theory and techniques for predicting the state of the oceans. In the past two decades, methods have been devised for the prediction of surface waves and surface wind distribution. A warning system for the tsunamis (tidal waves) produced by earthquakes has also been developed.
Certain currents within the oceans have been identified, but we do not yet know what the variable components are; that is, what the weather within the ocean is. Thus we have not been able to identify any instabilities within the oceanic circulation that might be easily manipulated. As in the case of the solid Earth, we can only speculate tentatively about how oceanic processes might be controlled.
One instability offering potential as a future weapon system is that associated with tsunamis. These frequently originate from the slumping into the deep ocean of loosely consolidated sediments and rocks perched on the continental shelf. Movement of these sediments can trigger the release of vast quantities of gravitational energy, part of which is converted in the motion of the tsunami. For example if, along a 1,000-kilometre edge of a continental shelf, a block 100 metres deep and 10 kilometres wide were dropped a distance of 100 metres, about 100 megatons of energy would be released. This release would be catastrophic to any coastal nation.
BRAIN WAVES ROUND THE WORLD?
At heights of forty to fifty kilometres above the Earth’s surface, substantial numbers of charged particles are found which make this part of the atmosphere, the ionosphere, a good conductor of electricity. The rocks and oceans are also more conducting than the lower atmosphere. Thus, we live in an insulating atmosphere between two spherical conducting shells or, as the radio engineer would put it, in an Earth-ionosphere cavity, or waveguide. Radio waves striking either conducting shell tend to be reflected back into the cavity, and this phenomenon is what makes conventional long-distance radio communication possible. Only recently, however, has there been any interest in natural electrical resonances within the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. Like any such cavity, the Earth-ionosphere waveguide will tend to sustain radio oscillation at certain frequencies in preference to others. These resonant frequencies are primarily determined by the size of the Earth and the speed of light, but the properties of the ionosphere modify them to a certain extent. The lowest resonances begin at about eight cycles per second, far below the frequencies ordinarily used for radio communication. Because of their long wavelength and small field strength, they are difficult to detect. Moreover, they die down quickly, within 1/16 second or so; in engineering terms, the cavity has a short time constant.
The enhanced low-frequency electrical oscillations in the Earth-ionosphere cavity relate to possible weapons systems through a little understood aspect of brain physiology. Electrical activity in the brain is concentrated at certain frequencies, some of it extremely slow, a little around five cycles per second, and very conspicuous activity (the so-called alpha rhythm) around ten cycles per second.
The Brain Research Institute of the University of California is investigating the effect of weak oscillating fields on human behaviour. The field strengths in these experiments are of the order of a few hundredths of a volt per centimetre. Subjects show small but measurable degradation in performance when exposed to oscillating fields for periods of up to fifteen minutes.
The field strengths in these experiments are still much stronger, by a factor of about 1,000, than the observed natural oscillations in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. However, as previously noted, the intensity of the natural fluctuations could bc increased substantially and in principle could be maintained for a long time, as tropical thunder storms are always available for manipulation. The proper geographical location of the source of lightning, coupled with accurately-timed, artificially-excited strokes, could lead to a pattern of oscillations that produced relatively high power levels over certain regions of the Earth and substantially lower levels over other regions. In this way, one could develop a system that would seriously impair brain performance in very large populations in selected regions over an extended period.
SECRET WAR AND CHANGING RELATIONSHIPS
Deﬁciencies both in the basic understanding of the physical processes in the environment and in the technology of environmental change make it highly unlikely that environmental modiﬁcation will be an attractive weapon system in any direct military confrontation in the near future. Man already possesses highly effective tools for destruction. Eventually, however, means other than open warfare may be used to secure national advantage. As economic competition among many advanced nations heightens, it may be to a country’s advantage to ensure a peaceful natural environment for itself and a disturbed environment for its competitors. Operations producing such conditions might be carried out covertly, since nature’s great irregularity permits storms, floods, droughts, earthquakes and tidal waves to be viewed as unusual but not unexpected. Such a ‘secret war’ need never be declared or even known by the affected populations. It could go on for years with only the security forces involved being aware of it. The years of drought and storm would be attributed to unkindly nature and only after a nation were thoroughly drained would an armed take-over be attempted.
In addition to their covert nature, a feature common to several modification schemes is their ability to affect the Earth as a whole. The environment knows no political boundaries; it is independent of the institutions based on geography and the effects of modification can be projected from any one point to any other on the Earth. Because environmental modification may be a dominant feature of future world decades, there is concern that this incipient technology is in total conflict with many of the traditional geographical and political units and concepts.
Political, legal, economic and sociological consequences of deliberate environmental modification, even for peaceful purposes, will be of such complexity that perhaps all our present involvements in nuclear affairs will seem simple. Our understanding of basic environmental science and technology is primitive, but still more primitive are our notions of the proper political forms and procedures to deal with the consequences of modification. All experience shows that less significant technological changes than environmental control finally transform political and social relationships. Experience also shows that these transformations are not necessarily predictable, and that guesses we might make now, based on precedent, are likely to be quite wrong. It would seem, however, that these non-scientific, non-technological problems are of such magnitude that they deserve consideration by serious students throughout the world if society is to live comfortably in a controlled environment.
Professor MacDonald is associate director of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the University of California, Los Angeles. His researches have embraced a remarkable diversity of natural phenomena and his professional interests are further extended by his participation in national science policy-making. He is a member of President Johnson’s Science Advisory Committee.
Author’s note: In the section on weather modification I have drawn heavily on Weather and Climate Modification (National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, zg66). A.T. Wilson’s paper on ‘Origin of Ice Ages’ appeared in Nature, vol. aox, pp. z4y-g (xg64), and J. T. Hollin’s comments in vol. ao8, pp. ra-16 (r 965). Release of tectonic strain by underground nuclear explosion was reported by F. Press and C. Archambeau in Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 67, pp. 337-43 (1962), and man-made earthquakes in Denver by D. Evans in Geotimes, vol. to, pp. rr-rp. I am grateful to J. Homer and W. Ross Adey of the Brain Research Institute of the University of California at Los Angeles, for information on the experimental investigation of the influence of magnetic fields on human behaviour.
CHRONOLOGY OF WEATHER MODIFICATION IN USA
SPRING 2011 / DESTRUCTION OF THE BIBLE BELT April 14 - Hail, winds pound Kansas; Deadly tornadoes in Oklahoma, Arkansas April 15 - Intense thunderstorms rush through Central Arkansas, Tornado Count in Arkansas Rises to Nine April 16 - Tornadoes kill several people in Carolinas April 17 - Ferocious storms devastate South / Tornadoes, floods leave several dead in Virginia April 18 - Storms wrack North Carolina, Scores of tornadoes reported across state April 19 - Illinois Tornado Outbreak / Storms rip into Central, Southern Illinois April 20 - Dozens of tornadoes rip through Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Georgia, Virginia and Kentucky; death toll from the severe weather to more than 248 April 21 - Hawley, Texas Supercell and Tornado April 22 - Saint Louis “Good Friday” Tornado, Airport Closes Indefinitely After Tornado Rips Through Terminal April 23 - North Texas Tornadic Supercell! April 24 - Texas Tornadoes! Louisville, KY flooding April 25 - Residents flee as river overflows Missouri levee / Flooding Continues... More Rain Expected April 26 - Storms Leave 7 Dead in Arkansas, All but Wipe Out Town April 27 - Tornadoes rip through Alabama, Tuscaloosa tornado hardest-hit with 162 deaths April 28 - Tornadoes and Storms Tear Through South; at Least 292 Dead April 29 - Federal judge gives Army Corps of Engineers OK to break Missouri Birds Point Levee May 1 - Druidic Feast of Beltaine - Supreme Court refuses to halt Missouri levee breach May 2 - Army Corps Breaks Southeast Missouri Levee May 3 - Missouri farmland swamped after levee breach to help Cairo, Illinois / 2nd levee blast May 4 - Army Corps: 3rd levee blast rescheduled for around 1 p.m. Thursday May 5 - Memphis flooding next after levee blast May 6 - Memphis residents warned: Flee the flood / Louisiana Flooding Emergency Declared May 7 - Watery week ahead as Mississippi floodwaters hit Memphis, move downriver May 8 - Flooding in Memphis Tennessee, evacuations empty more than 1,300 homes May 9 - Arkansas Flooding: I-40 Remains Closed in East Arkansas May 10 - Arkansas Farmland Lost as Flood Waters Move Toward Louisiana May 11 - The Swollen Mississippi, Flooding Continues, Mississippi Delta braces for more flooding May 12 - Lafourche Parish declares state of emergency / Mississippi River threat requires Morganza Spillway to be opened May 13 - It’s a go: Spillway to inundate Cajun country; 3,000,000 acres of Arkansas, Mississippi and Tennessee farmland flooded. May 14 - Louisiana Opens Spillway as Mississippi River Gushes Through Cajun Countryside; 25,000 Homes May Be Lost May 15 - Thousands of homes sacrificed to save New Orleans from Mississippi floods May 16 - Space Shuttle “Endeavor” [STS-134 Mission], launched from Kennedy Space Center / More Floodgates Opened at Morganza Spillway; FEMA begins National Level Exercises (NLE) in preparation for national catastrophic event May 17 - New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) Flooded, ground saturated, water weight on already earthquake prone fault zone May 18 - Rising Mississippi River floods Vicksburg, MS after levee fails May 19 - NOAA chief warns of rapid onset of ‘unprecedented’ changes in oceans May 20 - US Army Corps of Engineers opened more bays on the Morganza Floodway, increasing rate of water surging into LA to 114,000 cu ft./ sec. May 21 - Ada, OK tornado May 22 - Joplin, MO two-celled F5 tornado devastates town / deadliest since 1953; Total devastation of Joplin - death toll 134 May 23 - Huge land hurricane with eye damages 200 homes in Kansas May 24 - Huge multi-vortex HAARP tornado hits Oklahoma City leaves 50 mile trail of damage / 36 tornadoes in 7 states May 25 - Massive HAARP tornado rips through Oklahoma; tornado roars through Sedalia, MO; tornado hits Denning/Altus, AR; Northwest Arkansas flooded, 14 in.48 hours May 26 - Atlanta Tornado Storm May 27 - Montpelier, Vermont Flood May 28 - Greater Philadelphia 1.7 earthquake May 29 - Unit 2 reactor shut down at nuclear power plant in Limerick, PA, 20 miles northwest of Philadelphia May 30 - Huge storm system with tornados moving into Midwest and North East US May 31 - Space Shuttle “Endeavour” landed at Kennedy Space Center / Space Shuttle “Atlantis” [STS-135 Mission] moved to launch pad June 1 - Tornado outbreak causes heavy damage in Massachusetts; F3 tornado in Springfield; State of Emergency declared, 1,000 National Guard called up June 2 - Missouri River flooding; So. Dakota governor urges evacuations; FEMA on location; Army Corps to break S.D. dams to release MO River flooding to Mississippi River, which will add more water weight on top of New Madrid fault.
_________________ What is life? It is the flash of a firefly in the night, the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset. With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol